Wednesday, December 04, 2019

Kaohsiung Incident 40th anniversary exhibit at the Kaohsiung Museum of History

This hasn't been publicized much for some reason, but from now until Dec. 15, the Kaohsiung Museum of History is hosting a special exhibit on the Kaohsiung Incident (美麗島事件). Here's a press release about the exhibit (in Chinese). A rough Googled translation:
Exhibition Name: Looking Back on the Road-Belonging to Our Beauty Island
Exhibition time: November 29-December 15, 108 [2019]
Venue: Special Room 104, Kaohsiung City History Museum 
The development of democracy is a long road, and Taiwan's democratic process is obvious to all. This (108 [2019]) year is the 40th anniversary of the beautiful island incident. This event is not only a very important historical chapter of Kaohsiung, but also a crucial moment influencing Taiwan's democratic development. The Kaohsiung City History Museum serves as the cultural and historical base of Kaohsiung City. Through the help of the National Human Rights Museum of the National Human Rights Museum and Mr. Su Yaochong of Providence University, Kaohsiung launched the "Looking Back to the Road of Time-November 29, 108" A special exhibition of our island of beauty. 
On the (29th) day, the curator Professor Su Yaochong of Jingyi University gave a lecture on the 40th Anniversary of the Beautiful Island Incident and a special exhibition tour, sharing how the people strived for "democratic politics" before and after the event. Countless sacrifice, in exchange for understanding the results of strict and democratization. 
Lin Siling, director of Kaohsiung City Government Bureau of Cultural Affairs of Kaohsiung City, said that as long as it happened on this land, it should stay in the hearts of people in this land. Democracy is a kind of literacy. Regardless of the inheritance of democracy 40 years ago or 40 years later, there will be different expressions of maturity after different stages. I hope that school institutions can come to the exhibition and think about how young generations can achieve it through peaceful and contributing methods. Democracy belonging to this generation. 
The special exhibition uses three exhibition areas, "Background of the Times", "Outbreak of Conflict" and "Beyond Beautiful Island", to combine photographs, police helmets and shields, newspaper clippings, and cultural relics from other party magazines at the time to tell the public about the beautiful island incident. Pick up and turn. I hope that through the exhibition, I will lead the audience to trace the historical context of this major event, and then reflect on the future of Taiwan's democratic politics. 
The "Kaohsiung Incident" or "Beautiful Island Incident" occurred on December 10, 1979, when the "Beautiful Island Magazine" held a march to promote International Human Rights Day. A serious clash between police and civilians broke out. A total of 152 people were arrested. The remainder were tried in general justice and another 8 were tried in military law.
I'm unfortunately not going to be able to go since we won't be going to Taiwan this winter break, but I hope anyone who sees this will either go or publicize the exhibit more on social media so it gets good attendance.

Wednesday, November 06, 2019

Night in the American Village

I just finished reading Akemi Johnson's Night in the American Village: Women in the Shadow of the U.S. Military Bases in Okinawa, which I bought in Kindle format after reading John Grant Ross's review of it.

Ross does a good job summarizing the book (without giving away too much!), so I recommend you read his review (and then buy the book!). I just want to mention a few points that I found interesting (which probably will say more about my own particular--or peculiar--interests than about the book itself). A lot of what the book centered around had to do with language, culture, and intercultural relations of various kinds--not surprising, I suppose. One extended example:

Johnson describes a 34-year-old Okinawan woman named Naomi who worked at the U.S. Navy Hospital as an Master Labor Contractor (MLC), a full-time position for "permanent residents of Japan who are unconnected to the U.S. military"; Johnson describes MLCs as forming "the lowest rung of the chain of command, below American active duty and civilian personnel." And not surprisingly, these workers as the lowest rung turn out to be "the continuity that [keep] the place running." One of things that make Naomi essential to the functioning of the base is her language ability and cultural knowledge. Johnson describes how this knowledge works on a typical day:
Over the first four to five years on the job, Naomi had learned a sophisticated system of code-switching to thrive in her multicultural workplace. "Once I go through the fence [between the U.S. base and its surroundings], I become chotto, a little bit, American," she said. On base, she shifted her mindset, ready to say "no" if she meant "no" instead of the "Hmm, let me think about it" she'd use off base. she had to be ready to adjust, depending on whom she was talking to, something she excelled at because of her experience living in both the United States an Okinawa. "I can imagine how they tend to think," she said of Americans and Okinawans. She knew with a local, middle-aged man who worked on base, she had to joke with him, talking to him casually, with an Okinawan accent. When she spoke to her contractor from mainland Japan, she switched to a Tokyo accent, which she'd learned from having Japanese roommates in the States. With her American supervisor, she had to use clear and professional English. If she messed up, the stakes could be high. "If I talk to an Okinawan ojichan [grandpa] with a mainland accent, he'll block me right away. Boom! 'I don't talk to you anymore.'" If she talked to him the correct way, he treated her like family. "That's how I figured out how to survive in that environment. I like it, actually."
Shuttling among languages and cultures (as Suresh Canagarajah might put it), Naomi demonstrates a sophisticated rhetorical awareness of what it takes to get done with different people in different contexts. She is almost a different person depending on who she is talking to. To Johnson, Naomi points out the implications of this in terms of her self-identity:
Looking back on her experience, Naomi thought it was easy to label the different roles she had played: Okinawan, international student, adult professional. But those labels didn't adequately describe her. "The inside is more difficult," she said. "I'm a blend of so many factor: Okinawa, United States, California, and on the base. ... It's hard to categorize me right now." ... She valued this flexible self she had cultivated. "My perspective changes almost every day," she said. "I'm creating my own style."
I'm not sure if Naomi is her real name because Johnson notes that she changed some interviewees' names (but on the other hand, she mentions a "Naomi Noiri" in her acknowledgments). I've been discussing with some colleagues the issue of international students' names, in particular the international students who choose to be called by "English" names. Naomi's experience and her awareness of moving in and out of identities adds an interesting twist to the question of what it might mean to take on a name that is not the one you were born with (or rather, that your parents gave you) in intercultural contexts.

Anyway, read the whole book! It's a great read.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Oh, and on a vaguely related note...

The pastors in the churches from my fundamentalist upbringing are saying, "Aha! I told you so!"


And when I saw this new item, I immediately thought of this:

(Don't think those pastors would appreciate the song, though...)

Something to come back to when I get a chance (I always say that...)

A student in one of my first-year writing classes is doing research on "technological singularity" and it jogged my memory of a book I once owned (and might have actually read some of!) years ago by Stephen L. Talbott: The Future Does Not Compute: Transcending the Machines in our Midst. (I'm amazed that I can actually remember the whole title! Must have been memorable!) Unfortunately, I no longer seem to have that book unless it's in my in-laws' house in Taiwan, but I was able to find some notes on the book by C. M. Mayo, who did a lot of research on the ideas behind the book. She also points out that Talbott has put the book online on his website, so I don't have to buy it again...

I don't know (yet) how Talbott's book might connect to the questions my student will be trying to answer about technological singularity, but it might be that the warnings that he raises are even more fundamental to our relationship with each other and technology than the question of what AI might be able to do in the future.

Monday, September 09, 2019

Publication by former student

Rickard Stureborg, a student from my summer ENGW 3315 (Advanced Interdisciplinary Writing) course, revised one of his projects for class and submitted it to "Towards Data Science," an online publication of articles about data science and machine learning. The other day he wrote to tell me that they had published it! Yay!

Here's his article, "Artificial Neural Networks for Total Beginners." Using an example of how to predict the height of a tree based on the soil content of the ground, Rich explains how models would be created, tested, and refined using machine learning.

Note: I know that almost 20 years ago I argued against teachers "advertising" students' publications because it struck me as being an appropriation of their work.  But as Rich told told me, the more I share it, the more people will see it. (Now I have to go back and revise that paper...)

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Hajimu Masuda on Andrew Grajdanzev

In a comment, "yh" pointed me to a book review of Hajimu Masuda's Cold War Crucible, which contains a paragraph about Andrew Grajdanzev. Here's the passage:




For folks who can't see the Google book (users of Google Chrome?):
The case of Andrew Grajdanzev was even worse. Born in Siberia, and having spent almost his entire life in Harbin and Tianjin, China, before immigrating to the United States in the 1930s, Grajdanzev was Willoughby's number one target and had been placed under strict surveillance in 1946. He was tailed, his room was secretly searched, and his letters were read, though there was no substantial evidence that he had done anything wrong. A three-week counterintelligence investigation found that he tended to eat by himself, stay at home, and visit the same places frequently. This last behavior did attract an investigator's interest, but it turned out that he was regularly learning Japanese and teaching English. Nevertheless, when he returned to the United States, he could not find a job in government at all, due to rumors and attacks, despite his work experience in the SCAP, a Ph.D. in economics, and fluency in Russian, Japanese, Chinese, and English. Eventually he studied library science, starting over completely, and got a job at a small local library. (p. 30)
Willoughby, as I mentioned in an earlier post, was a witness during the IPR hearings. But he wouldn't say anything about Grajdanzev because a Presidential Directive and Army orders didn't allow him to (see page 387).

Friday, August 23, 2019

New year's resolutions for the 2019-2020 academic year

Although in some ways this is a bit of a masochistic exercise, I'm going to write up a short list of resolutions for the academic year as I did last year and some years before. Two of my main motivations for doing this are that 1) I haven't posted anything in August yet, and 2) I should be working on revising a book chapter that's due Sept. 3 and/or writing a new syllabus for the first-year writing class I'll be teaching in a couple of weeks. And nothing beats procrastination as a motivation for making new year's resolutions, right? No? Hmmm....

Well, anyway, last year I had deleted my Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ (RIP) accounts, so I was able to get more work done (somewhat). Unfortunately, I have drifted back onto Twitter, which I'll probably have to disconnect from sooner or later because it's so depressing. If I can keep away from Twitter, I'd like to do more reading and writing (in addition to the required reading and writing I do for my classes). I'd like to try to do some of that reading and writing in Chinese, too.

I could also try to spare some more time for family activities. Last fall was nice for that (at least for a while) because we had "family time" on Fridays, but this fall we'll all be in school on Fridays, so we might have to join the crowds on Saturday.

Hmmm... this is beginning to sound more like a wish list than a list of resolutions. Maybe I'll come back and fill in the blanks later... [Update, 8/27/19: I took action on my "wish list" yesterday by deleting my Twitter account. So I'll either get more things done or I'll spend inordinate amounts of time skimming my LinkedIn feed...]

Monday, July 29, 2019

Desperately seeking an early manuscript version of Formosa Betrayed

I have written before on this blog and in my intro. to the Camphor Press edition of Formosa Betrayed about the book's pre-publication history. It's a complex affair that I have not come to the end to. Right now I'm trying to figure out where to track down a manuscript from the late 1940s or early 1950s, titled, variously, The Development of Modern Formosa, Formosa--Yesterday and Today, Formosa: The Five Fateful Years, 1945-1950, and The Formosa Question, 1945-1951. (There are probably other titles I haven't come across.)

I have come across (through Google) two books that cite Development in their bibliographies: It was evidently seen by Jan Erik Romein because he cited it in his 1956 book, De Eeuw Van Azië. It's cited as "Kerr, G. H. The development of modern Formosa, 1950." Romein was a Dutch Marxist historian. His book, whose English title is The Asian Century: A History of Modern Nationalism in Asia, was also published in Japanese in 1961 as アジアの世紀 : 近代アジア民族主義史. Anyway, I wonder if there was a connection between Romein and the Institute of Pacific Relations.

Kerr's book is also cited in The Statesman's Year-Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1952, and listed as being published in NY. Wonder if the editor of this book also got a copy of the manuscript. If both this book and Romein cite it as 1950, that means that they had an earlier version of the ms that Kerr eventually withdrew from the IPR.

No manuscript shows up, that I've seen, in any of the IPR archives at Columbia University, U of Hawai'i, or U of British Columbia. Guess I'll keep looking. I'm open to suggestions...

Thursday, July 25, 2019

A couple of news articles featuring Andrew Grajdanzev

On this cool Library of Congress website, "Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers," I found a couple of articles from the Washington, D.C., Evening Star that cite Andrew Grajdanzev:

Haven't gone through all of the "Andrew Grad" articles yet. Gotta get back to my main task for today ... choosing shower tile...

Friday, July 12, 2019

Heart in Taiwan

I was watching an interview the other day between Dan Rather and Ann & Nancy Wilson of Heart, and I was surprised to hear them mention that the Wilson sisters had spent some time in Taiwan as children. Their father was in the Marines, and they were stationed in Taiwan for 3 years. At the time, according to their memoirs, Kicking & Dreaming: A Story of Heart, Soul, and Rock and Roll,* Ann was six years old, and Nancy was "only a few years old."

In 1956, Ann, Nancy, their older sister Lynn, and their mother took a troop ship from San Francisco to Taiwan to meet their father, a major who had already gone to Taiwan a few months earlier. Ann Wilson recalls that as the ship left San Francisco, they stood on deck to wave goodbye, and "Nancy was wearing a tether harness tied to a railing on the ship to keep her from falling into the sea. She pretended she was a wild horse."

Ann Wilson describes their three years in Taiwan as "an innocent time, but always one of tension." She recalls the typhoons and frequent trips to air raid shelters, but also remembers how her mother tried to make life normal for them, decorating the house and organizing the Girl Scouts.

They don't have much else to say about their three years in Taiwan (perhaps not surprising since they left when Ann Wilson was 9 years old). They don't even mention where they were living in Taiwan. It would be interesting to know where their father (Major John Wilson, USMC) would have been stationed there. (Ann Wilson mentions that Wilson's father had been a general in the Marines. Their grandfather was the Brig. Gen. John B. Wilson that Camp Wilson at Twentynine Palms, California was named after.)

I'm not sure they ever went back to Taiwan (perhaps for a Heart concert), but I do recall that during my first trip to Taiwan in the summer of 1990, ICRT (the English-language radio station in Taiwan) was playing that awful song, "All I Wanna Do (Is Make Love to You)"--don't worry, Ann Wilson hates it, too, calling it "hideous" in the interview with Dan Rather:



* Link is to a 2012 interview on WBUR radio.

Sunday, July 07, 2019

US State Dept Human Rights Reports on Taiwan, 1979-1987

These links are mainly for my own reference, though maybe they'll be useful to someone else, too. These are country reports on human rights practices "submitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate and Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives by the Department of State in accordance with sections 116(d) and 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended."

The links go directly to the Taiwan reports:


There are more, but this goes up to the end of martial law, anyway.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Five new books in the former native speaker's library

I don't have time to post anything of substance now (had a busy June and will be teaching two courses from July-August), so here's a list of some books I've bought this month (but won't have time to read for the aforementioned reasons):

I bought some books from the University of Hawai'i Press sale. They're not really new, but they're new to me!

  • Remaking Area Studies: Teaching and Learning Across Asia and the Pacific, ed. Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss. 2010. (It cost $5!)
  • The Diplomacy of Nationalism: The Six Companies and China's Policy toward Exclusion, by Yucheng Qin. 2009. (It cost $3!)
  • Plantation Workers: Resistance and Accommodation, ed. Brij V. Lal, Doug Munro, and Edward D. Beechert. 1993. (It cost $1!)
I also saw an article about the new Penguin edition of John Okada's No-No Boy, which is evidently taking advantage of the book's "uncertain copyright status" and might be cutting Okada's heirs out of royalties. The summary of the novel itself also interested me, so I bought a copy of the University of Washington edition (evidently the Okadas still receive royalties from the UW edition).
  • No-No Boy, by John Okada. Foreword by Ruth Ozeki. ©️ 1976 Dorothy Okada. U of Washington Press.
Finally, I bought a book that somehow I missed out on hearing about, but I found (through Google Books) cites some memoranda written by George Kerr:
  • Washington's Taiwan Dilemma, 1949-1950: From Abandonment to Salvation, by David M. Finkelstein. 1993. George Mason UP. 

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

More on Andrew Grajdanzev, from Michael Cannings of Camphor Press

Michael Cannings of Camphor Press found some more information on Andrew Grajdanzev on Ancestry.com. (I guess I should subscribe to that service--looks like I could access a lot of info that way.) Here's what he had for me:
The first entry is a passenger manifest for the SS President Grant, sailing from Shanghai to Seattle, WA in 1937 – he is listed as a teacher with his last residence in Tianjin. I've attached it here. His name is listed as Andrew Jonas (note the "s" but it's almost certainly the same guy).
He is listed as resident in Oakland, CA in 1939.

According to his US naturalization records Andrei Iona Grajdanzev (anglicized as Andrew Jonah Grajdanzev) was born in Ussolie (now known as Usolye-Sibirskoye) in Russia, 10 November 1899. Here's his certificate recording his application for naturalization:

Naturalized 26 June 1945 in New York. Spouse named as one Mary Grajdanzev (née Jakov).

From 1945–1949 he's listed in the NY phone book.

Then there are two index cards from the Associated Press records, attached here.

His name in Russian is Андрей Ионович Гражданцев – running it through Google (plus Google Translate) shows a bit more info, along with someone who says he's his great-great-nephew.


Moved to Harbin 1924, later taught at Nankai University in Tianjin. A Russian speaker would be able to tell you more. And there's a picture:

I hope that's of some help!
Michael
It is indeed! I looked at the link to OK.ru, which is, according to Wikipedia, sort of a Russian version of Classmates.com. At first I tried to read it with my rusty high school Russian, but gave up pretty quickly and used Google Translate to get these results:
Letter of the day
Andrei Grazhdovtsev, orientalist-economist
Letter from the Rostov region
Wanted: Information about Andrey Grazhdovtsev  Year and date of birth: 1900
Search geography (spr.): United States
“This is my great-grandfather's brother. My grandfather lost contact with him. I am interested in his fate - where he lived, how he died ...
Citizens (Grajdanzev) Andrey Ionovich (Andrew Jonah), 1898 or 1899 born. - Orientalist economist.
Since 1924 in Harbin. He graduated from the economic department of the RSUF. Private Associate Professor in the Department of Political Economy (1933-34). Then he taught at Nankai University in Tian. "
Application No. 2497373
The photo

Comments

  • 25 Dec 2015 07:04
    NB
    Hello! Citizen Andrei Ionovich is a cousin of my great-grandfather Mikhail Ionovich Graditsev.
    My great-grandfather was born in 1892 in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Sayan District, the village of Usolye. Education received a secondary. He was one of the officers of Kolchak. After the defeat of Kolchak lived in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Sayan district, the village of Voznesenka. He taught Russian language and literature at school. September 8, 1937 was arrested. Sentenced: Troika at UNKVD of the Krasnoyarsk Territory on October 31, 1937. Shot on November 7, 1937, a week after the sentence was pronounced Verdict: VNS Rehabilitated on December 30, 1958 by the Krasnoyarsk Regional Court. Place of burial Krasnoyarsk. The Grazhdrantsevs had many brothers, two of them lived in Usolye. After the execution of my husband, my great-grandmother left Krasnoyarsk with children for one of the brothers in Usolye and lived there until the end of his days. Relatives of Andrei Ionovich currently reside in Usolye-Sibirskiy. This is his niece, Grantsevtseva Elena Mikhailovna, and many grandnephews. We know that Andrei Ionovich eventually emigrated from China to the USA. He lived there and taught. But where exactly is unknown. Still, at the time of the Soviet Union from
    The United States received a request for relatives of Andrei Ionovich living in the USSR about some kind of inheritance. But because of the repression
    Citizen Mikhail Ionovich
    relatives were denied the interest of the inheritance. Everybody knows this from the words of his niece Grazhdovtsena Elena Mikhailovna. Another of his niece Rudenko (by her husband) Tatyana Mikhailovna died in March 2014, this is my grandmother.
  • Jan 20, 2016 6:13 pm
    Call the author of the application
    2497373 from the group "Wait for me" to search for information on Andrew Ionovich Grazhtsevtsov. I would like to meet you. After all, we are relatives.
  • 8 Feb 2016 08:30
    Hello! I found quite a lot of information about your relative. In America, he was a famous scientist. Read more - on the page "Wait for me" with the same application "In contact"
    https://vk.com/feed?section=comments
  • 8 Feb 2016 08:56
    NB replied to Alexander Fomin
    Thank you very much! I saw the information you found, though I did not have time to read it! I will study tonight! It has long dreamed of finding at least some facts, but here such luck
I don't intend to join VK.com (a Russian social networking service) to find out more about Grajdanzev (this is sort of a hobby, after all), but if anyone reading this reads Russian and happens to be a member of VK, I'd appreciate any help you could give me!

[Update, 6//2/19)] Turns out I didn't need to join VK--I just Googled his name in Russian and came up with this website: https://vk.com/wall-96412344_1807.

Андрей Гражданцев, востоковед-экономист

Письмо из Ростовской области
Разыскивается:
Информация о Гражданцеве Андрее Ионовиче
Год и дата рождения: 1900
География поиска (спр.): США

«Это родной брат моего прадеда. Связь с ним потерял мой дедушка. Мне интересна его судьба - .где жил, как умер...
Гражданцев (Grajdanzev) Андрей Ионович (Andrew Jonah), 1898 или 1899 г.р. -  востоковед-экономист.
С 1924 г. в Харбине. Окончил экономическое отделение РЮФ. Приват-доцент по кафедре политэкономии (1933-34). Затем преподавал в Нанькайском университете в Тянь».
Заявка № 2497373
Oldest
Now you can choose what order you want to see comments in
Marina Komarova
у семьи довольно много данных Можно попробовать(семье) запросить Международный Красный Крест Организация просит в запросе место рождения Если вот эти сведения о брате разыскиваемого то скорее всего место рождения одно Сайт Жертвы политического террора в СССР Копия Гражданцев Михаил Ионович
Родился в 1892 г., г. Усолье Иркутской губ.; образование среднее; Учитель в средней школе. Проживал: с. Вознесенка Саянского р-на КК.
Арестован 8 сентября 1937 г.
Приговорен: тройкой УНКВД КК 31 октября 1937 г., обв.: КРО.
Приговор: ВМН Расстрелян 7 ноября 1937 г. Место захоронения - в г. Красноярске. Реабилитирован 20 октября 1989 г. прокуратурой КК
Источник: Книга памяти Красноярского края
Alexander Fomin
Здравствуйте! Ваш родственник - очень знаменитая личность, автор многих статей по Японии, Китаю, Корее, одну из которых я сейчас читаю по профессиональной необходимости (я историк). Во время второй мировой войны и после нее он был одним из ведущих американских экспертов по этому региону.
Alexander Fomin
Из биографических сведений о нем могу сообщить следующее (из предисловия к статье):
Dr A.J. Grajdantsev first studied Japanese agriculture in 1930 when he made his first visit to Japan. During World War II he was a member of research staff of the Institute of Pacific Relations. During the occupation of Japan he served as Chief of the Prefectural Branch of the Governmrnt Section in General Headquarters, SCAP.

Вот, кстати, ссылка на одну из его статей: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/north-korea/1..

Желаю успехов!
А.М.Фомин.
Alexander Fomin
Впоследствии он публиковал свои работы под именем Grad, Andrew Jonah,

Например вот эту: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015004987..
Alexander Fomin
Alexander Fomin
В этом файле см. с. 5.
dinas.pdf
5.8 MB
Alexander Fomin

Andrew Grajdanzev and the McCarran IPR hearings

A few thoughts about Grajdanzev's "virtual" presence in the IPR hearings and comments on his scholarly abilities that came out of those hearings. Grad himself wasn't a witness at the hearings, but his name came up quite a few times, and some exhibits were entered that refer to his research and writing skills. But there are mixed impressions of his research abilities--some people praise them, while one other is quite critical of them.

I mentioned a while back that Andrew Grajdanzev's name came up along with George H. Kerr's during the 1951-52 Senate subcommittee hearings on the Institute of Pacific Relations (the "McCarran Committee" or the McCarran hearings). On April 2, 1942, Kerr (at the time, a military intelligence analyst in the War Department in D.C.) wrote to William Holland of the IPR regarding some galley sheets he had received of Grajdanzev's "extraordinarily good work"--Grad's Formosa Today (1942). Kerr calls the book "excellent" and comments that "[t]hat there are only a few very minor suggestions I might make, none of first importance." Holland replied on April 3 (from New York City! How did mail travel so fast back then!?). He sent along an advance copy of the book and again asked for any feedback from Kerr.

So here we have Kerr's words that show he was impressed by the quality of Grajdanzev's work. There's also an exchange between Edward Carter and Lt. Col. Frederick D. Sharp of Military Intelligence (plus an unknown "Mr. Thurber"). The first letter, from Carter to Sharp, is dated July 10, 1941 and concerns a request Sharp had made about the Siberian railways. Carter is sending along a "very tentative memorandum" based on some quick research. (Oddly, in Exhibit 89, the sentence reads, "With sources he has drafted the enclosed very tentative memorandum, a copy of which I enclose." But a few pages earlier in the testimony section, the sentence is written, "Without sources he has drafted the enclosed very tentative memorandum, a copy of which I enclose." So was the memorandum written with or without sources? Perhaps we'll never know...)

Later on (July 23), Carter sends to a Mr. Thurber (a colleague of Sharp's, it seems) a first draft of notes on the Tran-Siberian Railway. Lt. Col. Sharp writes back on the 24th (at least they're both in NYC), praising the report that was "drawn up so ably by your colleague, Mr. Andrew Grajdanzev." He goes on to write,
To thank both you and him in proportion to its value would be difficult. May it suffice to say that our own researches are at an end with such a reference source, and that Mr. Thurber, of my office, will be sorely tempted to draw on your knowledge of industries and raw materials east of the Urals, which is the next goal.
So here is another example of praise of Grad's work. Grajdanzev's work is even used in an IPR letter asking for donations, as shown in Exhibit 88, a letter of November 26, 1941. The letter says that
Mr. Grajdanzev prepared a monograph [about the Trans-Siberian Railway] which has been hailed in three Government departments as far more accurate than anything which they themselves could have prepared. This is just a sample of the kind of work which the institute is able to do and explains why the governments in this and other countries are so eager to get the services of members of the institute staff.
All of the above exhibits were presented during the testimony of Major General Charles Willoughby, Chief of Intelligence, Far Eastern Command and United Nations Command, on August 9, 1951 (beginning on page 353 in this volume).

However, later testimony by Professor David Rowe of Yale University (from March 27, 1952) casts Grajdanzev's research abilities in a different light. When asked about Grad's time at Yale in 1947, Rowe states that Grad had come on a grant from the Ford Foundation that had been obtained for him by William Holland. Holland mentions this in his memoirs, too. Rowe states that Grad was originally supposed to work there for two years under supervision by several faculty members. However, Rowe says that Grad was asked to leave because "we disapproved of his work." As he puts it,
We considered his work not to have sound scholarly method in it. It was so bad from that point of view that we finally reported adversely to Mr. Holland in a letter signed by myself and at least four of my colleagues, everyone of whom, including an economist, a sociologist who specialized on Japan, the late John Embree, who was my colleague there at Yale; a geographer, Karl Pelzer, who is a great expert on Asiatic geography; Prof. Chitoshi Yanaga, who was associate professor of political science at Yale. And the general agreement was that the work simply did not stand up from a scholarly point of view.
Rowe stresses that while the work had a "left wing" bias, "that wasn't the fundamental basis of our objection to it. ... We raised objections from a methodology aspect, and we simply came to the conclusion that this man was not a sound scholar in the field." Rowe goes on to express displeasure with how Holland handled their advice--he says that Holland "proceeded to act as though our objections didn't cut any ice" and "went right back and got more money to keep on supporting him, and sent him up to Columbia and had him affiliated there."

It should be noted here that Rowe appeared as a "friendly" witness at the McCarran hearings. He had clear problems with the IPR and had actually quit the organization in 1950 because he was critical of its left-wing political stance. At one point he said of Owen Lattimore, "my subjective opinion for what it is worth, in light of my knowledge of the subject matter, my 20 years of study in the far eastern field, is that as of today among far eastern specialists in the United States Lattimore is probably the principal agent of Stalinism." (He sort of backtracks later on by (re)defining "agent": "When I said that he was an agent of Stalinism, I am talking about ideologies and ideas and that he is promoting these ideas and ideologies." As he admits, "I have no positive knowledge by which I could identify this man as a formal Communist affiliate. In other words, I can't prove one way or another whether he was ever an agent of the Russians.") But his primary criticism of Grajdanzev's work has to do with methodology, he says. It would be interesting to see the original letter he mentions--perhaps it's at Columbia University (there's correspondence between Rowe and Holland from 1947; there's also, by the way, correspondence between Grajdanzev and Holland from 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, and 1951). Maybe I need to get down there sometime...

No conclusion here yet, though I am curious about how some people could consider Grad's work to be of such high caliber and others could consider it unsound scholarship. It could very well be that Grajdanzev was better at researching and writing for some audiences (government organizations) than others (academics). I found a review of Grad's Land and Peasant in Japan (1952), which I previously (mis)understood to be an unpublished manuscript. The author of the review criticizes the book for being too ambitious in scope and not living up to that ambition, but at the same time praises the book for "the wealth of new information and pertinent insights they [Grad's efforts] afford in the agrarian scene in prewar, wartime, and postwar Japan at national and local levels" (187). The reviewer calls the book "a compendium of Japanese agriculture," which isn't exactly a compliment if Grad was expected to write a carefully argued academic discussion, but could be seen as a compliment if he meant to cover a lot of ground in a more general overview. Updated: I see that in another part of the McCarran hearing testimony, a witness named William W. Lockwood describes Grajdanzev's Formosa Today as "mainly a compilation of factual material." That description sounds a bit similar to the description of Land and Peasant in Japan that's in the review.